Jean-Baptiste Leca, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor
Board of Governors Research Chair (Tier II)
Department of Psychology
University of Lethbridge
Canada

Current Lab Members

Noëlle GunstPh.D. (Adjunct Assistant Professor)


After a M.Sc. in Ecophysiology and Ethology (2002), Noëlle received a Ph.D. in Ecology (2008) from the University of Georgia (USA) under the supervision of Dr. Dorothy Fragaszy. During her Ph.D., Noëlle studied the development of foraging competence in the wild brown capuchin monkeys of Raleighvallen Nature Reserve, Suriname. From 2011 to 2015, Noëlle did a post-doctorate at the University of Lethbridge under the supervision of Dr. Paul Vasey, during which she studied the development of sexual behaviors in Japanese macaques. Since 2016, she is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at the U of L.

Noëlle and I have been working together since 1996 on several research projects (group movement in white-faced capuchins, fur rubbing in white-faced and brown capuchins, development of extractive foraging in brown capuchins, stone handling and fish eating in Japanese macaques, as well as stone handling, eye covering play, and robbing/bartering practice in Balinese long-tailed macaques), and conservation projects (population density of ebony leaf-eating monkeys and mona monkeys).

Since September 2015, Noëlle has been studying female-male mounting, monkey-deer mounting, and all-male groups in Japanese macaques, as well as the development of extractive foraging in Balinese long-tailed macaques.  She is also setting up a project on the sustainable wildlife-human coexistence on the island of Grenada (West Indies), with an emphasis on the community-based conservation of the introduced mona monkeys.

Afra ForoudPh.D. (Adjunct Assistant Professor)


Afra is interested in how the developmental processes involved in the organization, expression, and function of movement in infants and young children shape learning, communication, language and social relationships throughout the lifespan. Her research focuses on the analysis of movement structure, sequence, and quality during motor and language development in naturalistic settings. Her doctoral thesis characterized motor development in very young infants and, demonstrated how early infantile movement patterns become expressed again in the elderly who have lost mobility due to stroke.

During her tenure as a Killam Postdoctoral Fellow at Dalhousie University, Afra began an examination of gestural and body actions within the contexts of language and spatial awareness in young and older adults. She continued this line of investigation with a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Fellowship at the University of British Columbia in young infants.

Upon her return to Alberta, Afra joined the nationwide SSHRC funded Art for Social Change project to study the effects of dance on day-to-day function, motor learning, and social communication in people with Parkinson’s disease at the University of Calgary.

Throughout her work, Afra draws on her background as a dancer and dance educator to integrate art and science in the study of human development. She is an adjunct assistant professor in the Departments of Neuroscience and Psychology at the University of Lethbridge where she continues her research and also enjoys teaching both inclusive and targeted dance classes for people with developmental disorders in the community of Lethbridge.

In 2017, Afra has joined our lab and we are collaborating on a research project related to the development of object play and tool use behaviors in young children.

Camilla Cenni,  M.Sc. (Ph.D. student)

After a B.Sc. in Biological Sciences (2014) from the University of Bologna (Italy), Camilla joined the German Primate Centre and participated in several research projects focusing on color vision, olfactory communication, and cognition in captive and wild mouse lemurs and red-fronted lemurs. Part of these studies involved field observational and experimental work in the Kirindy forest of Western Madagascar, where she also studied three endemic species of chameleons.

In 2016, Camilla received a M.Sc. in Animal Behaviour from the University of Exeter (UK). Her main research project consisted in developing individual-based evolutionary models (via computer simulations) to understand the adaptive role of social play behavior in mammals. She focused on the coevolution between play-fighting and social systems. She also analyzed dominance hierarchies of male and female rhesus macaques based on win-loss agonistic interactions. Finally, she co-designed a coding system for video-recorded data on human-robot interactions in a playful context.

In January 2018, Camilla started a PhD in our team, taking a Tinbergian approach to object play and tool use in different macaque species.

              Camilla Cenni (right) directly involved in an olfactory experiment with a bamboo lemur (left)
Sydney Chertoff, B.Sc./B.A. (M.Sc. student)

While double-majoring in Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (B.Sc.) and Psychology (B.A.) at Canisius College, Buffalo, NY (USA), Sydney has studied captive gorillas at the Buffalo Zoo for five years (2013-2017). Her research included observational data collection and the use of eye-tracking technology to study visual processing in this primate species. Sydney acquired expertise with this type of research while working at the Institute for Autism Research at Canisius College where she participated, as a research assistant, in studies of children with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). She is familiar with facial processing in both humans and non-human primates, as well as a variety of behavioral sampling techniques. She also worked with captive chimpanzees at Chimp Haven. After graduating in December 2017 (Honors degree), she has spent several months at the Lajuma Research Centre (South Africa), doing daily follows of samango monkeys (cf. photo) in the field and fecal hormone extractions.

From September 2017, Sydney will be working towards gaining her MSc in Psychology in our lab, starting with a field research season in Bali from May to August. She has always had a fascination with the comparison of some mental disorders in humans and abnormal behaviors in non-human primates, as she feels one can inform the other. For her MSc research, she plans to explore the motivation underlying repetitive object-directed manipulation, and investigate whether/how the fidgeting behaviors seen in some children relates to the stone handling behaviors observed in some groups of Balinese long-tailed macaques.

Chloë India Wright, M.Sc. (Research Assistant)


Chloë is interested in the evolution of social behaviours, with a wider enthusiasm for primate behavioural and cognitive evolution more generally. Her broad interests are reflected in her varied research background. During her B.A.(Hons) in Anthropology from Durham University, UK, she undertook fieldwork in South Africa for a dissertation looking at handedness in samango monkeys, and assisted with a ‘giving-up densities’ experiment, which assessed risk perception and foraging decisions. She later returned to this field site to work on a conservation project which aims to mitigate the numbers of samangos killed on the roads in the area. Other projects she has worked on include a project investigating the predator avoidance strategies and alarm-calling behaviour of bald-faced saki monkeys in the Peruvian Amazon, and one looking into vocal communication in vervet monkeys. 

Chloë gained a MSc from the University of Edinburgh in 2016, where her research was conducted with the captive squirrel monkey population at Edinburgh Zoo. Her thesis examined the role of individual differences in personality and social network position in participation and performance during a cognitive task. During this data collection, she also assisted with a project on causal reasoning and physical cognition in squirrel monkeys, and began basic tool-use training using positive reinforcement techniques. She hopes this experience will come in useful for the experimental aspect of our data collection on stone-handling in Balinese long-tailed macaques. 

Chloë is currently living and working in Edinburgh, and is looking forward to returning to primate research as a field research assistant with us from April-August 2018, and hopes to continue with a PhD programme in the near future.
Chloë Wright doing what she likes most: Primate watching
Sidhesh Mohak,  B.Sc. candidate  (Research Assistant)

 

Currently in his final year of undergraduate studies (majoring in Neuroscience), Sidhesh is aiming to pursue a career in medicine. The 20 year-old found his passion for helping others through his time at the Chinook Regional hospital (Lethbridge) where he has over 100 logged hours of volunteer work, and in the Dominican Republic where he went during the reading weeks, two years in a row to assist with free health clinics. He values his community greatly and also acted as the Chair of Athletics for the 2016 SASG, which were held in Lethbridge.

The brain and its behavioural outputs have always interested Sid, leading him towards a Neuroscience degree. Having taken a few undergraduate courses in animal psychology, Sid continued to show his interest in the field.


Since September 2016, and under Dr. Noelle Gunst's co-supervision, Sid has conducted three Independent Studies in our lab, doing video analysis of object manipulative behavioral patterns in long-tailed macaques (with a focus on manual coordination, object selectivity, and tool use).

In Spring 2018, and under Dr. Afra Foroud's co-supervision, Sid is doing an Applied Study in our lab, investigating object play and tool use behaviors in young children at the Lethbridge Montessori School.

Samantha Tinworth,  B.Sc. candidate (Research Assistant)

Samantha is currently an undergraduate student at the University of Lethbridge with a major in biology. She has always had a keen interest in animal behaviour which stems from her love of the environment.

Her favourite past playground is the Sea of Cortez in the Baja California Sur, where she worked as a naturalist for a marine biology eco expeditions. During this time she had the chance to work with sea turtle conservationists, naturalists, and marine biologists. In the future she hopes to share her passion with others as an educator or pursue sustainability projects and animal behaviour research.

She is thrilled to be working in our lab in summer 2018 and learning more about non-human primate behaviour. She will be assisting with video analysis of object play, object exploration, complex foraging, tool use, and non-conceptive sexual behaviours in Balinese long-tailed macaques.

Corinne Adele Marshall,  B.Sc. (Independent Study Student)

 

Corinne recently completed her bachelor of science in psychology from the University of Lethbridge. During her studies, she focused on courses related to the psychology of cultural development and memory. Additionally, she has course background in Indigenous Studies where she focused on courses related to Indigenous development and psychology.

Corinne is passionate about child development and racial relations. Her volunteer work and research interests reflect those passions. In the spring of 2018, Corinne volunteered for an Aboriginal Head Start program. She worked with children ages 3-5 in a classroom setting. Her primary duties were related to assisting her supervisor. Additionally, Corinne was responsible for providing redirection and social support for the kids when necessary.


Corinne’s research in our lab is focusing on whether (and, if so, to what extent) object play facilitates the development of tool use in children.

                                                                                                             Corinne’s goal is to pursue a master’s degree in child psychology. 

Former Lab Members

Fany BrotcornePh.D. (Post-Doctorate Fellow)


Fany received a first M.Sc. in Psychology (2006) from the Free University of Brussels (Belgium) during which she studied fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins, and a second M.Sc. in Biology of Organisms and Ecology (2008) from the University of Liège (Belgium) during which she studied the commensal long-tailed macaques of Bangkok (Thailand). Then, Fany received a Ph.D. in Sciences (2014) from the University of Liège under the supervision of Drs. Marie-Claude Huynen and Pascal Poncin. During her Ph.D., Fany studied the impact of anthropic factors on the behavioral ecology of different populations of Balinese long-tailed macaques (Bali, Indonesia).                                                                                                              


In 2015-2016, Fany's postdoctoral project in our lab consisted in studying the environmental factors, psychological mechanisms, and cultural processes underlying the object robbing and object/food bartering behaviors exhibited by 5 neighboring groups of Balinese long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu, south Bali.

Amanda Pelletier,  M.Sc.


Amanda received a B.A. in Psychology (2013) from the University of Regina. She has an extensive work and volunteer experience with people suffering from mental health disorders, developmental disorders, and addictions. She is familiar with procedures related suicide assessment and intervention. In 2014, she worked for "Volunteer Eco Students Abroad" in a wildlife rehabilitation center in South Africa.

Amanda earned a MSc in Psychology (2017) under my supervision. Her MSc thesis was entitled: “What can behavioural structure tell us about motivation? Insights from object play and foraging in Balinese long-tailed macaques”. Her work in our lab aimed to present new empirical research on the proximate links between object play (stone handling) and foraging behaviours (nut handling), with an emphasis on combinatory and percussive actions. Amanda used specific structural characteristics (e.g., kinematic features) of these two object-oriented activities in Balinese long-tailed macaques to explore similarities and differences in their motivational underpinnings. Her research will further our understanding of the mechanistic and evolutionary connections between questionably adaptive behaviours, like object play, and arguably adaptive ones, like tool use.
Amanda Pelletier (right behind the croc)

Lydia Ottenheimer CarrierM.Sc.


Lydia received a B.Sc. in Psychology (2011) from the Memorial University of Newfounland during which she did a Honours thesis on dog personality.


Under the co-supervision of Dr. Paul Vasey and me, Lydia earned a M.Sc. in Psychology (2015) at the University of Lethbridge. From November 2012 to January 2013, she participated in the data collection of sexual behaviors in Japanese macaques at Jigokudani and Minoo, central Japan.

During her M.Sc. thesis, entitled "Female mounting in Japanese macaques: proximate and ultimate perspective on non-conceptive sex", Lydia used the Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation technique to compare the structure of female-female and female-male mounting behavior in Japanese macaques.

Erin DavisB.A./B.Sc. (Honours Thesis)

 

Erin graduated in 2008 with a diploma of nursing and worked for 7 years at the Lethbridge Regional Hospital on a maternal/child unit, doing postpartum and postnatal care. In her time there, she noticed that there was a lack of attention to the psychological needs of patients. She came back to the university to obtain a degree in Psychology and a better understanding of mental health. She currently volunteers with the Canadian Mental Health Association.

Erin is currently working on her Bachelor of Arts and Science, with a double major in Religious Studies and Psychology. Her research interests are in Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Psychology of Religion. More specifically, she’s looking at how differences in Western and Eastern philosophical thoughts affect mental health, wellness, moral thinking, and addiction.

 

In 2015, Erin volunteered with Lethbridge Immigrant Services and was fortunate to work with the Bhutanese refugee community that settled down in Lethbridge. After fleeing their country, Bhutanese people of Nepali descent experienced the trauma of refugee camps in Nepal, and many Bhutanese refugees now living in Western countries have high rates of PTSD and other mental illnesses.

From May to December 2016, Erin conducted an Honours Thesis (co-supervised by Dr. Jennifer Mather and myself), focusing on how community support services can improve the wellness of Bhutanese people living in Lethbridge.

Brittany Toth, B.Sc. candidate  (Research Assistant)

Brittany spent three years (2005-2008) working in construction, building furniture, and learning finishing carpentry. After finishing high school, she spent four years working in landscape construction. She entered the U of L in 2012 and will graduate in April 2018 with a BSc in Psychology.

She did two Applied Studies and one Independent Study under Dr. Afra Foroud’s supervision, who trained her to analyze movement for her research in the effects of Parkinson's disease and dance. Originally, Brittany’s interests were in sport psychology and post-injury recovery. However, after reading an article about a young Syrian family who mistook a loud bang on a bus (whose engine had broken down) for gun fire, she shifted her direction to research on trauma, PTSD, and TBI. After graduation, she plans on taking a few years off and then pursue her masters where she wants to incorporate carpentry and tactile therapy as a rehabilitative method in people who have suffered TBI and/or PTSD. She wants to work with young kids who have suffered TBI in sports as well as refugees, war vets, and first responders who have experienced and suffer from trauma.

In Spring 2018, Brittany is working with Camilla Cenni on object play and tool use, as she feels this is a valuable stepping stone for her future research and education.
Stephanie Blencowe, B.Sc. candidate  (Research Assistant)

Born and raised in Calgary, Stephanie entered the psychology program at the U of L upon completing high school. The diverse program allowed her to take a variety of courses, which led her to add a religious minor onto her degree. Her time in Lethbridge has also seen her engage with the broader community through volunteering with such organizations as the Lethbridge Family Centre.

 

Stephanie’s research interests center around human lifespan development: from traumatic to healthy youth development, to the environments and social structures that promote optimal cognitive functioning, the lifespan lens of psychology provides a wide breadth of research topics. The study of  primate behavior is also of interest to her. 

 

For her Independent Study in our lab in Spring 2018, she is focusing on object manipulation in monkeys under the guidance of PhD student Camilla Cenni. Her work includes video scoring stone handling behavior in long-tailed macaques.

Caitlin Furby,  B.Sc. candidate (Research Assistant)

Caitlin is currently in the final year of undergraduate studies (majoring in Statistics with a Concentration in Psychology). She is aiming to pursue a career in researching placebo effects in alternative medicine and the behavioral pull that drives individuals to choose alternative remedies. She has extensive knowledge in statistical analysis, machine learning, data mining and data recording software. Over the years, Caitlin has completed numerous independent studies, and self-motivated research ranging from artificial grammar learning, survival statistics, suicide and disease statistics in Canada and has designed iterative damage report maps pertaining to oil and gas leaks throughout Canada.
Since September 2017, Caitlin has been working as a research assistant in our lab, using R to analyze large data sets pertaining to the stone handling behavior in Japanese macaques and Balinese long-tailed macaques, with an emphasis temporal structure in behavioral sequences.
Jessica Thiessen, B.Sc. candidate  (Research Assistant)

Jessica was born and raised in Calgary. She is a third-year student at the U of L pursing a B.Sc. in Psychology with a minor in Religious Studies. Her research interests include how human memory works in regards to people with Dementia and Alzheimer’s, and animal behaviour with specific interests in horses, bees and monkeys.

Jessica enjoys volunteering, and has been involved in the Rotary club since September of 2016, as well as with Family Community Support Services and the Food Bank.

 

In Spring 2018, as part of her Independent Study in our lab, Jessica is scoring videos and analyzing data of sexual behavior in Japanese macaques, under Dr. Noëlle Gunst’s supervision.


 Jessica Thiessen, also interested in... chickens' behavior

Lilah Sciaky, B.A. (Research Assistant)

Lilah received a B.A. in Biology (2015) at Lewis & Clark College (USA). After working as part of the husbandry staff at the Duke Lemur Center (2014), she went on to manage a temporary field site for the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Germany). 

At the field site in Parc National du Bafing (Mali), she investigated the ecology and cultural behavior of unhabituated chimpanzees. Lilah's research interests include novel tool use, learned behavior and social networks of non-human primates.


Following remote field work in Mali, Lilah worked as a field research assistant at the German Primate Center, University of Goettingen (Germany). This project focused on the role of hormones in bonding and cooperation in Barbary macaques at Affenberg Salem (Germany).


From May to August 2017, Lilah has worked in our team as a field research assistant in Ubud (central Bali). She investigated the social influence on the expression of stone handling behavior in long-tailed macaques, and is now participating in the analysis of the data she collected.


Lilah Sciaky
NOT involved in an interaction with a long-tailed macaque at the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, Indonesia)

Stephanie Varsanyi,  B.A./B.Sc. candidate (Research Assistant)


Stephanie is a fourth year student at the University of Lethbridge, and is pursuing a Bachelor of Arts and Science in Philosophy and Psychology. She has a wide range of research interests, including, but not limited to, adolescent psychology, criminal psychology, primate cognition, and sexual psychology of animals and humans.


In addition, Stephanie loves to volunteer, and is currently the membership representative for the campus psychology club and a program assistant for Environment Lethbridge. To keep up to date on her work, please follow her Twitter @steph_varsanyi.


As part of her Independent Study in our lab, under the co-supervision of Dr. Noëlle Gunst and Dr. Paul Vasey, Stephanie is scoring video-recorded data of sexual behavior in Japanese macaques to test the “functional hypothesis” of female-male mounting.

Jamie Schnell, B.Sc. (Research Assistant)

Jamie received his B.Sc. in Psychology (2017) from the University of Lethbridge where he completed several independent studies and an honours thesis examining the placebo and the nocebo effect.

Placebo and nocebo effects are his primary area of interest, particularly examining the perceptual aspect of each and how the two may interact. Additionally, he has an interest in studying various forms of sexual deviancy. His intention is to pursue graduate studies with the ultimate goal of becoming a professor of psychology.

Since September 2017, Jamie is conducting a Research Assistantship in our lab, scoring video-recorded data pertaining to the stone handling behavior in Balinese long-tailed macaques, with an emphasis on testing the "sex toy" hypothesis via stone-assisted genital stimulation.

Jamie Schnell presenting his Honours Thesis after receiving the Psychology Gold Medal.

Amanda MakiB.A. (Applied Study student)

Amanda is in her final few courses of her B.A in Psychology at the University of Lethbridge. Her research interests for her are primarily focused on forms of Animal-Assisted Therapy. After taking two courses with me (Human & Animal Personalities and Human-Animal Interactions), she found her passion for Animal-Assisted Therapy. Amanda wishes to pursue a career working with at-risk youth and rescued/abused animals, in a dual-rehabilitation type program. She demonstrates her passion through her work at a local veterinary clinic, as well as her volunteering at the Lethbridge Therapeutic Riding Association (LTRA). 

From May to August 2017, Amanda conducted an Applied Study under my supervision, examining the effects of Equine-Assisted Therapy on children with different physical disabilities and psychological disorders.

       Amanda Maki (right) and Maddie (left), a program horse at LTRA

Jessica Kim Sonmor,  B.Sc. (Research Assistant)

 

Currently in her final semester of B.Sc. in Psychology at the University of Lethbridge, Jessica has various research interests, including the mechanisms of non-conceptive sexual behaviors in monkeys, and the potential causes of allergies in animals, particularly dogs.

When she is not at the university, Jessica works at Rehoboth Christian ministries where she helps people with mental disabilities accomplish simple day-to-day goals and tasks. She is qualified as a practitioner.

After getting a Master’s degree, she wants to become a registered psychologist and work at the Lethbridge prison, in order to help those society has given up on, to hopefully decrease to recidivism rate.

In Spring 2017, she conducted an Independent Study in our lab, assisting with the video scoring of object manipulative behavioral patterns in Balinese long-tailed macaques, with a focus on stone-assisted masturbation behavior.

                                                          Jessica Sonmor, taking a break from the video analysis of stone-playing-monkeys

Emmanuel Ipaa,  B.A. (Research Assistant)


Currently in his final semester of B.A. in Psychology at the University of Lethbridge, Emmanuel found his passion for animal behavior research after taking several courses in our Department, related to social learning, culture, and communication in non-human animals. Part of his interest in animal behavior stems from his love for the outdoors and in nature in general.


In Spring 2017, he conducted an Independent Study in our lab, assisting with the video scoring of object manipulative behavioral patterns in Balinese long-tailed macaques.

He hopes this opportunity will help him pursue future animal behavior studies, including field research.


Emmanuel Ipaa "hunting bears with a spear in the Rockies" (and smiling at the idea of actually encountering one!).
Tatjana Kaufmann,  M.Sc. (Research Assistant)


During her M.Sc. in Psychology (2013-2016) at Saarland University (Germany), Tatjana explored key aspects of the development of physical and social cognition in preschool children from a cross-cultural perspective: she investigated a variety of problem-solving abilities, including tool use propensity and imitative tendencies in human children, before the beginning of formal education.


Tatjana's strong interest in social learning and tool use in humans and non-human primates led her to take on a field research assistant position at the German Primate Center, University of Goettingen (Germany): from March to December 2016, she participated in a research project exploring the emergence and evolution of prosocial behaviors and socio-cognitive strategies in the Barbary macaques of Affenberg Salem (Germany).


From January to April 2017, Tatjana has worked in our lab scoring videos of object manipulative behavioral patterns in Balinese long-tailed macaques, with a focus on stone-assisted masturbation behavior.
                         
                             Tatjana Kaufmann
(background) and her macaque study subjects (foreground) at Affenberg Salem

Silvana Sita,  M.Sc. (Research Assistant)


After receiving a B.Sc. in Environmental Engineering (2011) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), Silvana volunteered at two wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centers in British Columbia, Canada (2011/2012). Then she worked for 10 months (2012/2013) as a field research assistant at the Lomas Barbudal Capuchin Monkey Project in Costa Rica, directed by Dr. Susan Perry (UCLA), where she gained experience with Primatology and field data collection in primates. In April 2016, Silvana completed her M.Sc. in Psychobiology, under the supervision of Dr. Renata Ferreira, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Her master's thesis focused on individual differences and post-release adaptation, and included the analysis of behavioral changes during different phases of enrichment, behavioral assessment via personality tests, and survival analysis.


From May to October 2016, Silvana has participated in the field data collection of stone handling behavior and extractive foraging activities by the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Ubud (central Bali). Along with Elenora, she focused on personality and social correlates.

Silvana Sita (next to the deer)
Molly Gilmour,  B.Sc. (Research Assistant)

Molly did her undergraduate B.Sc. in Zoology at the University of Queensland, Australia. For her honours thesis, she studied social behavior in eastern grey kangaroos in Queensland. After graduating, she spent four months in Namibia studying the behavior of wild baboons as a research assistant on the Tsaobis Baboon Project. Then, she continued as a research assistant for a project studying the dynamics of fission-fusion social systems in wild giraffes at Etosha National Park, Namibia. In the future she hopes to continue studying animal behavior and gain a Ph.D. in the field of animal behavior.

In October 2016, Molly participated in the data collection of stone handling behavior and extractive foraging activities by the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Ubud (central Bali), focusing on personality and social correlates.
        Molly Gilmour
(in the sun) with her baboon subjects (staying in the shade)

Daniela Rodrigues,  M.Sc. (Research Assistant)

Daniela received a B.Sc. in Biology (2012) from the Faculty of Science at the University of Lisbon (Portugal). Before starting her M.Sc. in Cognitive Sciences, Daniela had the opportunity to study parental behavior in captive chimpanzees at the Lisbon Zoo. Her master’s thesis focused on the development and evolution of language, comparing the acquisition of communicative gestures in chimpanzees and human infants.

From 2014 to 2016, Daniela was hired to collect behavioral data on red ruffed lemurs at Lagos Zoo (Portugal), as well as on mandrills and ring-tailed lemurs at Badoca Park (Portugal). In January 2015, she worked as a field research assistant at Fundació Mona (Spain) where she studied the effects of enculturation and social deprivation on chimpanzees’ communication.

In October 2016, Daniela participated in the data collection of stone handling behavior and extractive foraging activities by the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Ubud, focusing on personality and social correlates.                  
 Daniela Rodrigues (foreground) with her ruffed lemur study subjects (background)

Montana Hull,  M.Sc. (Research Assistant)


Montana gained her B.Sc. in Zoology from Aberystwyth University, Wales, in which she studied chimpanzee behavior as her dissertation. After being awarded a scholarship from Aberystwyth University, Montana continued on to doing a M.Sc. in Environmental Management. In 2015, upon completion of her master's degree, she successfully applied for an internship with Orangutan Foundation International, where she lived in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and Los Angeles, USA. She worked closely with Dr. Birute Galdikas and was involved with data collection on wild macaques. Additional to this, she has volunteered with primates in Borneo, Florida and Louisiana, as well as completed an internship at Chester Zoo, UK. In the future, Montana hopes to continue her study of primates and gain a Ph.D. in this area.

In September 2016, Montana participated in the data collection of stone handling behavior and extractive foraging activities by the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Ubud (central Bali), focusing on personality and social correlates.              


                                                                  Montana Hull following 2 long-tailed macaques at Ubud

Lucía Jorge Sales,  M.Sc. (Research Assistant)

 

After a B.Sc. in Biology (2012) at the Universitat de Valencia (Spain), Lucía worked for 6 months (2013) as a keeper at Primadomus in Villena (Spain), an animal rescue center affiliated with the AAP Foundation. There, she gained experience working with chimpanzees, hamadryas baboons, pig-tailed macaques and long-tailed macaques. In 2015, Lucía received a M.Sc. in Primatology from the Universitat de Girona (Spain). During her master’s research, she used social network analysis as an indicator of welfare in captive groups of chimpanzees (housed in outdoor enclosures at Fundació Mona, a primate rescue center located near Girona, Spain) and wild groups of black howler monkeys (living in a fragmented forested area in southern México, where she worked in collaboration with the Instituto de Ecología – INECOL – near Villahermosa). In 2015-2016, she returned to México, where she participated in an environmental education project for the conservation of black howler monkeys.


From April to August 2016, Lucía has participated in the data collection of the object robbing and object/food bartering activities in the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Uluwatu. Along with Fany, she has focused on social network analysis and personality correlates.
Elenora Neugebauer,  M.Sc. candidate (Research Assistant)


Elenora received her B.Sc. in Biology (2015) from the University of Würzburg (Germany). Her B.Sc. thesis focused on the raiding behavior in stinging ants, and was carried out at the Comoé Research Station in Ivory Coast. In 2011, she worked as a research assistant in the KiLi Project that explores biodiversity and ecosystem processes on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. In 2012, Elenora first experienced field primatology by taking part in the initial phase of the "Macaca Nemestrina Project", run by the Universiti Sains Malaysia in cooperation with the German Primate Center. She helped with the habituation of free-ranging pig-tailed macaques in Malaysia, by using telemetry. In 2013-2014, she completed an internship at the German Primate Center, where she investigated the role of canines in dominance relationships among male crested macaques.


In April 2016, Elenora has assisted Fany and Lucía with the data collection on the robbing/bartering activities in the long-tailed macaques from Uluwatu (south Bali). From May to August 2016, she has worked with Silvana and participated in the data collection of the stone handling and nut handling behaviors performed by the macaques from Ubud (central Bali), while being enrolled as a M.Sc. student in Ecology and Evolution at the Goethe University of Frankfurt (Germany).

Anna HolznerM.Sc. (Research Assistant)


After a B.Sc. in Biology (2012) at the University of Munich (Germany), Anna received a M.Sc. in Applied Ethology and Animal Biology (2014) at Linköping University (Sweden). During her M.Sc., Anna studied dog personality (i.e., she compared the behavioral responses of different dog breed in test situations). Then, for one year, she gained experience as a field assistant in the "Macaca Nemestrina Project" run by the Universiti Sains Malaysia in cooperation with the German Primate Center investigating the behavior and ecology of habituated, free-ranging pig-tailed macaques in Malaysia.


From October 2015 to April 2016, Anna has participated in the data collection of the object robbing and object/food bartering activities in the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Uluwatu. Along with Fany, she has focused on social influences, developmental processes, and personality correlates.


Anna Holzner (right behind the kitten)



Riane MilanB.A. (Research Assistant)


From January to April 2015, Riane did an Independent Study in our lab during which she scored videos to establish the repertoire and explore the structure of stone handling behavior in the Balinese long-tailed macaques of Ubud, central Bali. Along with Amanda Pelletier, she participated in documenting new stone handling patterns that had not been observed in the closely related species, Japanese macaques.


Long-term research collaborations

Paul L. VaseyPh.D.

(Department of Psychology, University of Lethbridge, Canada)


Paul L. Vasey is a Professor of Psychology. He takes a cross-species and cross-cultural approach to the mechanisms and evolution of non-conceptive sex. 

Paul was my post-doctorate advisor from 2011 to 2014 in the Department of Psychology at the University of Lethbridge. Paul and I published several papers on the development of sexual behavior in male and female Japanese macaques, as well as male and female homosexual behaviors in this primate species. We continue to collaborate on sex research projects in Japanese macaques (e.g., female-male mounting, female sexual orientation, hormonal correlates of female homosexual behavior, monkey-deer mounting, male masturbation, social and sexual interactions within all-male groups).

In 2012, Paul, Mike Huffman and I co-edited the book "The Monkeys of Stormy Mountain: 60 Years of Primatological Research on the Japanese Macaques of Arashiyama", Cambridge University Press.


Sergio M. PellisPh.D.
(Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge)

Sergio M. Pellis received his PhD in animal behavior/ethology in 1980 from Monash University, Australia. He spent 1982-1990 at the University of Illinois, Tel Aviv University and University of Florida where he received post-doctoral training in behavioral neuroscience and movement analysis. In 1990 he joined the University of Lethbridge, where he is a professor of animal behavior and neuroscience. A central focus of Sergio’s research is on the evolution, development and neurobiology of play behavior.

Sergio is collaborating with our lab on several research projects pertaining to object play behavior in macaques.



Michael HuffmanPh.D.

(Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan)


Mike is an Associate Professor in the section of Social Systems Evolution at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). His research focus includes social learning and cultural behaviors in primates and self-medication in humans and non-human animals.

Mike was my post-doctorate advisor from 2003 to 2005 and from 2007 to 2009 at the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute (Japan). We continue to collaborate on the stone handling research project in Japanese macaques and Balinese long-tailed macaques, as well as on other projects related to primate culture.

In 2012, Mike, Paul Vasey and I co-edited the book "The Monkeys of Stormy Mountain: 60 Years of Primatological Research on the Japanese Macaques of Arashiyama", Cambridge University Press.

Charmalie NahallagePh.D.

(University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka)


Charmalie is a Professor of Biological Anthropology. From 2003 to 2008, she did her MSc and PhD at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan) under Mike Huffman's supervision.

Since 2003, Charmalie and I have been collaborating on the stone handling research project in Japanese macaques and Balinese long-tailed macaques.

Recent undergraduate students (Independent Studies and Applied Studies)

2018 (literature reviews)

  • Hayley Johnson: "Psychobiology of the belief in conspiracy theories"
  • Makita Mikuliak: "Psychobiology of religious behaviour, OCD, and eating disorders"
  • Caleb Fernell: "Goal achievement theory: Motivation and applications"


2017 (field studies and literature reviews)

  • Caleb Fernell: "Evidence-based assessment of religious coping strategies".
  • Ryan Fukuda: "The evolution of religious belief".
  • Rosemary Boisson: "Integration of Syrian refugees into the Canadian Society".


2016 (questionnaire-based surveys and literature reviews)

  • Ashna Prakash: "Many Gods'... many voices: Psychosis in the Hindu religion".
  • Lauren Vomberg: "Statistical analysis of personality and degree of religiosity in Judaism".
  • Lyndsay Tomm: "HEXACO personality traits and religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students".
  • Nathan Grigg: "The importance of olfaction in New World vulture: A comparative neuroanatomical study".
  1. Lyndsay Tomm: “Personality and religious orientation”.
  2. Samantha Lasante: “Personality and prejudice towards homosexuals”.
  3. Jessica Vos: “Religiosity and prejudice towards homosexuals”. 
  4. Lauren Vomberg: “Personality and religious fundamentalism".
  5. Lindsay Tymchyna: “Personality of backpackers versus non-backpackers”.


2015 (research and literature reviews)

  1. Amanda Pelletier: “Structure of the stone handling behavior in Balinese long-tailed macaques”.
  2. Tracy Fillion: “A proximate perspective on religious behavior and belief: ontogenetic processes and causal mechanisms”. 
  3. Melissa McKinnon: “An ultimate perspective on religious behavior and belief: functional components and evolutionary history”.

Pictures from the field

The 2008 Stone Handling Team: Charmalie Nahallage, JB Leca, and Mike Huffman (Ubud, Bali, August 2008)

JB Leca and Mike Huffman filming stone handling behavior at the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, August, 2008)


Mike Huffman and JB Leca filming stone handling behavior at the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, August, 2008)


One of these hard field work days for JB Leca, Elenora Neugebauer, and Silvana Sita (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).
Mike Huffman, Charmalie Nahallage, and JB Leca (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, August 2008)

Same place, different time, different team: Elenora Neugebauer, JB Leca, I Nyoman Buana (Manager of the Ubud Monkey Forest),       Jeffrey Peterson, and Silvana Sita at the entrance gate of the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, June 2016).
JB Leca, Charmalie Nahallage, and Mike Huffman during the Primatological Seminars at Udayana University, Bali, with our Balinese colleagues from the local Primate Research Center (e.g., back row - I Nengah Wandia: 1st from left, and Aida Rompis: 4th from left; front row - Gede Soma: 3rd from left),
as well as Wayan Selamet (Manager of the Ubud Monkey Forest; back row, 5th from left)


Noëlle Gunst watching a grooming interaction between 2 Japanese macaques (Arashiyama, central Japan, November 2010)


Noëlle Gunst walking among Japanese macaques during "nap/grooming time" (Arashiyama, central Japan, November 2010)


JB Leca and Noëlle Gunst taking a break from the observations at the Arashiyama Monkey Park (around Kyoto, Japan, October 2011)

Noëlle Gunst trying to maintain her composure and collect behavioral data while a brown capuchin monkey ("Ernesto") is fooling around (Raleighvallen NP, Suriname, June 2003)

Noëlle Gunst and JB Leca on the platform overhanging the Langoué Baï at Ivindo National Park, Gabon (May 2008)

JB Leca and Noëlle Gunst carefully following Gabonese people's advice: wearing insect-repellent plants (Ivindo National Park, Gabon)
Noëlle Gunst in the Teluk Terima mangrove (West Bali National Park, May 2010)
... with 2 long-tailed macaques in the background (can you spot them?)
JB Leca collecting data in the Teluk Terima temple area (West Bali National Park, March 2010)

Sometimes, you have lots of stones around... but no monkeys (JB Leca in the Teluk Terima temple area, West Bali National Park, April 2010)
JB Leca pretending to be an ecologist in the Prapat Agung peninsula (West Bali National Park, June 2010)

Noëlle Gunst looking for ebony langurs during a transect survey in the Prapat Agung peninsula (West Bali National Park, July 2010)

JB Leca looking for ebony langurs during a transect survey in the Prapat Agung peninsula, West Bali National Park (February 2010)
Gwennan Giraud, JB Leca, and Fany Brotcorne during a BBC filming of the "robbing/bartering" project in June 2015 (Uluwatu, Bali)

Stuart (BBC camera operator), Chris Packham (BBC presenter and naturalist), Andrew (BBC sound operator), Fany Brotcorne, JB Leca, Gwennan Giraud, Amalia Ahmad, Victoria Buckley (BBC researcher and coordinator), Putu, Putu, and Ketut...

 ... during the BBC filming of the "robbing/bartering" project in June 2015 (Uluwatu, Bali).

The story is here: https://youtu.be/Y8Mi86wx-pU

JB Leca and Noëlle Gunst during the stone handling data collection on Japanese macaques (Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan, October 2008)
with the local staff (from left to right: Shukei Kobatake, Jun Hashiguchi, Yaeko Sugano, and Shinya Tamada)
JB Leca video-recording a heterosexual consortship of Japanese macaques (Minoo mountains, Central Japan, January 2013)
JB Leca collecting data on a female homosexual consortship of Japanese macaques
(Minoo mountains, Central Japan, January 2013)

 Lydia Ottenheimer Carrier, JB Leca, Joe Pontecorvo, and Nim Pontecorvo at Jigokudani (central Japan) in November 2012, during the filming of "Snow Monkeys" (PBS Nature), on the local Japanese macaques.

Shawn Philbert (Forestry Officer) and JB Leca speaking about the mona monkey project with an elementary school teacher and her pupils (and Maya!) in the Grand Etang National Park (central Grenada, West Indies) in April 2014.


Two field primatologists at work: Fany Brotcorne and Anna Holzner (Uluwatu, south Bali, October 2015)
(photo by Axel Michels)

Fany Brotcorne and her new best friend: The Psion (Uluwatu, south Bali, October 2015)
(photo by Axel Michels)

Anna Holzner filming monkeys "over the edge" (Uluwatu, south Bali, October 2015)
(photo by Axel Michels)

Fany Brotcorne collecting field data... or enjoying the view, just like the monkeys (?)  (Uluwatu, south Bali, October 2015)

(photo by Axel Michels)

Anna Holzner (with her hat "safely" jammed down on her forehead) surrounded by the Uluwatu monkeys (October 2015)
(photo by Fany Brotcorne)

Maya, our new field assistant in the team (Arashiyama, central Japan, December 2015)

  Never too early to start field primatology... (Arashiyama, central Japan, December 2015)


Amanda Pelletier, presenting her first poster on stone handling behavior at the Prairie University Biology Symposium - PUBS -

(University of Lethbridge, February 2016) ... the poster is HERE


Grazing monkeys in the foreground and primatologists (Fany Brotcorne and Lucía Jorge Sales) in the background
(Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

Lucía Jorge Sales and Fany Brotcorne collecting data in a forested area of Uluwatu (Bali, May 2016).

Lucía Jorge Sales considerately watching her study subjects (Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

Lucía Jorge Sales: A field primatologist at work (Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

Lucía Jorge Sales (holding Panamá!), JB Leca, and Fany Brotcorne (Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

JB Leca, Fany Brotcorne, Lucía Jorge Sales, and a yawning macaque (Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

Fany Brotcorne, Silvana Sita, and Lucía Jorge Sales (Uluwatu, Bali, May 2016).

Elenora Neugebauer video-recording an adult male long-tailed macaque (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Silvana Sita "chasing" a more elusive monkey (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Elenora Neugebauer and Silvana Sita waiting for their study subjects in the vicinity of the Ubud Monkey Forest (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Silvana Sita, Amélie Kluzinski, and Elenora Neugebauer discussing methodology – at least that’s what I thought… (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

1 Macaca fascicularis ("Who's this one, Nora?") and 3 Homo sapiens: Silvana Sita, Elenora Neugebauer, and JB Leca (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Elenora Neugebauer, Silvana Sita, Jeffrey Peterson, and JB Leca: Four big monkeys on a break (Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Elenora Neugebauer, JB Leca, I Nyoman Buana (Manager of the Ubud Monkey Forest), Jeffrey Peterson, and Silvana Sita
(Ubud, Bali, June 2016).

Silvana Sita, JB Leca, I Nyoman Buana (Manager of the Ubud Monkey Forest), Amélie Kluzinski, and Elenora Neugebauer
visiting the Sangeh Monkey Forest (Bali, June 2016).

Fany Brotcorne received a Marie Derscheid-Delcourt research grant from the Fédération Belge des Femmes Diplomées des Académies (Bruxelles, Belgium) for her post-doctoral research project entitled “Object/food cultural token economy in a population of Balinese long-tailed macaques” (September 2016)… Congrats Fany!

Poster presentation at the Meeting of Minds conference (March 2017, University of Lethbridge)
L to R: Erin Davis, Tatjana Kaufmann, Lauren Vomberg, JB Leca, and Amanda Pelletier.


Three primatologists -- Noelle Gunst, Lilah Sciaky, and Maya -- going to the field (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)


Lilah Sciaky, Noelle Gunst, and Maya doing observations in the Cemetery area of the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, May 2017)

Noelle Gunst filming an adult male long-tailed macaques performing stone handling behavior (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)


Noelle Gunst, Maya, and a monkey (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)


Noelle Gunst, Maya, a stone handler and a monkey witness at the beginning of a stone handling contagion...
(Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)

Maya filming "grooming monkeys" (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)

Lilah Sciaky filming a female long-tailed macaque in the Cemetery area of the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, May 2017). 
– "Excuse me, are there monkeys buried here???" –

Lilah Sciaky filming an adult male long-tailed macaque... and carefully watching her back! (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2017)

Lilah Sciaky and her favourite monkey: "Coco (left), what will you come up with next?"

Lilah Sciaky, Maya, and Noelle Gunst lost in "The Jungle" (Bali, end of afternoon, May 2017)

We were lucky this year: we had FOUR monkeys at the Ubud Monkey Forest (Bali, May 2017):
JB Leca, Maya, Lilah Sciaky, and Noelle Gunst

Another version of our traditional team picture (Ubud, May 2017):
JB Leca, Lilah Sciaky, and Dr. Islamul Hadi (Mataram University, Lombok, Indonesia)

Field practicum on tool use (a Saturday night in Lethbridge, February 2018)
L to R: Sidhesh Mohak, Brittany Toth, Camilla Cenni, and Stephanie Blencowe

Camilla Cenni presenting the first study of her PhD project at the Meeting of the Minds conference
(March 2018, University of Lethbridge)


Monkey-people sharing a fun evening at the best food place in Ubud (IMHO).

From left to right around the table: Sydney Chertoff, Chloé Cambier, Camilla Cenni, JB Leca, Ni Nyoman Yasi, I Nyoman Buana,
Damien Broens, Sophie Delooz, and Chloë Wright (Ubud, Bali, May 2018)

Eka Yuliani, Camilla Cenni, Sydney Chertoff, and Chloë Wright participating in Galungan ceremonies (Ubud, Bali, May 2018)

Three students (Camilla Cenni, Sydney Chertoff, and Chloë Wright) and a monkey (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

Sydney Chertoff filming a female focal subject on an unusual playing field (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

Camilla Cenni zooming-in on a juvenile monkey in the Cemetery area (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

Chloë Wright collecting a stone manipulated by a monkey (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

Chloë Wright and Camilla Cenni examining a stone handling artefact (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

Allogrooming interaction between two female primates (Camilla Cenni and Chloë Wright) – Based on the direction of the interaction and the details of the facial expressions, a dominance relationship can be inferred… (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, May 2018)

It takes all kinds of skills to do field primatology:
Chloë Wright making concrete lids… for the monkeys to break (with stones!) on top of puzzle boxes (Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali, June 2018)

“Daytime work is not enough” (who dared to say something like that?):
Camilla Cenni measuring and weighting sampled stones… late in the evening (Ubud home, Bali, June 2018)

Our now legendary “Three Monkeys” picture at the end of an equally legendary field research season, conducted by an even more legendary team: Chloë Wright, Sydney Chertoff, and Camilla Cenni (Ubud, Bali, August 2018).